Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) is defined in DSM-III as a dissociative treatment of a year-old woman who was referred to Thigpen and Cleckley. Study Thigpen & Cleckley – A Case of Multiple Personality flashcards from Esme Wishart’s class online, or in Brainscape’s iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster. J Abnorm Psychol. Jan;49(1) A case of multiple personality. THIGPEN CH, CLECKLEY H. PMID: ; [Indexed for MEDLINE]. MeSH terms.
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A web site full of stuff that should be useful. A case of multiple personality. It is an example of a neurotic disorder. Multiple Personality multipke not a form of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a type of psychosis where contact with reality and insight are impaired.
The aim of this article was to provide an account of the psychotherapeutic treatment of a year-old woman who was referred persohality Thigpen and Cleckley because of ‘severe and blinding headaches’. The psychiatrists used a case study method. This consisted of interviews with the patient and her family, hypnosis, observation, EEG tests and a number of psychometric and projective tests including, memory tests, ink blot tests and intelligence tests. During interviews several personalitg difficulties were revealed.
The psychiatrists believed that she had a number of complex, but relatively commonplace marital conflicts thipen personal frustrations.
However they were puzzled that Eve White had no memory of a recent trip. The therapists used hypnosis and the amnesia was cleared. The letter concerned her therapy and persknality written in her usual handwriting, but at the bottom of the page there was a paragraph that looked like a child had written it.
On her next visit Eve White denied sending the letter, though she recalled having begun one, which she never finished and thought she had destroyed. During the interview, Eve White who was normally very self-controlled became distressed and asked whether hearing an occasional imaginary voice made her insane. She reported that she had on several occasions over the last few months briefly heard a voice addressing her. During this conversation Csse White, as if in pain suddenly put both hands to her head.
To the therapist it seemed that the usually conventional and retiring Eve White had changed into a carefree person. She also seemed to have a very different physical presence in terms of manner, cleckey, and eye movements. When asked her name she immediately replied that she was Eve Black.
The voice and language structure were also very different, and to the therapist it appeared to be an entirely different woman. Over the next 14 months, during a series of interviews totalling approximately hours, extensive material was obtained about the behaviour and experience of Eve White and Eve Black.
Similarly, after a few hypnotic sessions the therapists could request Eve Black to let them speak to Eve White. After more sessions they found that hypnosis was no longer needed for obtaining the changes. In contrast, when Eve Black was not out she was aware of what was happening. Eve Black told the therapists about a number of incidents in childhood where she engaged in acts of mischief or disobedience, which Eve White was unaware of and was punished for.
Some of these incidents were later backed up in interviews with her parents and her husband.
She succeeded in concealing her identity not only from Eve White, but also from her parents and husband. Both personalities were given a series of psychometric i.
IQ and memory tests and projective tests i. Rorschach and drawings of human figures by an independent expert with the following results: Eve White had a superior memory function than Eve Black. Rorschach test ink blot test and drawings of human figures results: The profile of Eve Black was far healthier than Eve White. Eve Black though was regressive whilst Eve White was repressive showing obsessive-compulsive traits, rigidity and an inability to deal with her hostility.
During the therapy sessions it became clear that Eve Black had little compassion for Eve White, and could not be persuaded to help with the therapy. After eight months of treatment Eve White seemed to be making progress. It became easier for the therapist to call up whichever personality he wanted to examine, and childhood experiences were investigated under hypnosis. During one such episode, Eve White appeared to relax into a sleepy state. The therapists believed that another personality had emerged who called herself Jane.
The other personality, they argued, was more responsible than Eve Black and more confident cleckleh interesting than Eve White. After Jane appeared the three personalities were given electroencephalogram tests EEG. I t was possible to make a clear distinction between the readings of Eve Black and the other two personalities.
Having been able to work with the three personalities for several months the therapists concluded that if Jane could take possession of the personalities the patient would regain full health and find her way to a happy life. However, although the therapists could work with Jane to determine whether Eve Black had been lying, Jane had not found a way to displace Eve Black, or to communicate through her. It was decided the Jane was the person most likely to bring a solution to the troubled mind, and that her growing dominance over the other personalities to be an appropriate resolution.
A postscript to this remarkable story came in the revelation in by Eve that she had experienced many other personalities personaluty the thigppen therapy and after it.
She recalled a total of 22 and suggested that the fragmentation of her personality had been to protect herself from things she could not personalkty.
Thigpen and Cleckley were convinced that they had witnessed an example of multiple personality. Although Thigpen and Cleckley do not point to the cause of MPD, the received wisdom is that MPD is usually a response to child abuse – a way for the individual to protect him or herself.
Case studies are particularly useful in revealing the origins of abnormal behaviour. Through building up a long and detailed case history, case studies can be used as an aid to understanding and helping the client. Such research can also be called action research as the researchers involvement tyigpen consciously trying to change the persons behaviour.
A ghigpen strength of this case study was that it provides lots of data.
Thigpen & Cleckley – A Case of Multiple Personality Flashcards Preview
It contained an in-depth picture producing rich qualitative data multiplee. Thigpen and Cleckley also involved Eve’s relatives to help verify certain recollections, and to add information, and in this way throw light on the case.
They also asked independent experts to give a variety of tests including an EEG test, psychometric tests and projective tests. Case studies only relate to one individual and we have to be careful generalising from the c,eckley.
We have no way of assessing how typical this individual is of other people with multiple personality and therefore we have to ask whether this study is unique to Eve or whether we can generalise it to other cases.
The data may therefore be unreliable. The close relationship between researcher and participant may introduce bias. For example, in this case study, the moment that Eve Black appears can be seen in a different way to that described by the therapist. For the therapist this as a change in her personlity, but more caes it could be explained as a change in his perceptions of her.
A case of multiple personality.
There are many ethical issues to consider in this study. Firstly it could be considered whether Eve White was treated more of a subject than a patient. It is possible that the therapists could have been conned by a successful pedsonality. Thigpen and Cleckley did recognise this but asserted that the performance could not have continued for so long and so consistently.
However, the diagnosis of MPD is very peesonality. For example, there are many more cases reported in the US than say the UK. This perhaps demonstrates that some psychiatrists are more likely to diagnose MPD than others. Interestingly, women are more likely to be diagnosed than men.
An argument that is gaining popularity is that psychiatrists such as Thigpen and Cleckley are actually creating multiple personality by unwittingly leading their patients into believing that they have the condition. The public did not hear anything else about the case until when Eve revealed that she had approximately 22 personalities some of which she experienced before multipoe some after the therapy.
She believed that fragmentation of her personality had been to protect herself from things she could not bear. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49, Eve White had a superior memory function than Eve Black Rorschach test ink blot test and drawings of human figures results: A web site full of stuff that should be useful AS Psychology. Aim The aim of this article was to provide an account of the psychotherapeutic treatment of a year-old woman who was referred to Thigpen and Cleckley because of ‘severe and blinding headaches’.
Explanation Thigpen and Cleckley were convinced that they had witnessed an example of multiple personality.
Evaluation of Procedure Strengths Case studies are particularly useful in revealing the origins of abnormal behaviour. Weaknesses Case studies only relate to one individual and we have to be careful generalising from the findings.
Evaluation of Explanation It is possible that the therapists could have been conned by a successful actress.