The grand Hampi was reduced to a wasteland. Even today, it is known by the tragic Kannada moniker, Haalu Hampi (Ruined Hampi). And this. The Battle of Talikota (or Tellikota) (January 26, ) constituted a watershed battle fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Deccan. The Battle of Talikota is one of the most important battles in South Asia’s long history.
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The Battle of Talikota or Tellikota January 26, constituted a watershed battle fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Deccan sultanatesresulting in a rout of Vijayanagara, ending the last great Hindu kingdom if South India.
Talikota situates in northern Karnatakaabout 80 km to the southeast of the city of Bijapur. Throughout the onslaught of invading armies of MuslimsMughals, and Christians, the Hinduism of southern India remained strong and resilient. Even after Muslim sultanates defeated the armies of the Vijayanagara empire in the s C. Why the Vijayanagara empire, possessing such military power, a vigorous economy, powerful religious traditions, and natural defensive features, fell to the Muslim sultanates after only two centuries is puzzling.
The Battle of Talikotain which the Muslim sultanates demolished the armies of Vijayanagar, may hold the key to explaining the fall. The rulers of the Vijayanagara empire, batttle in the capital city of Vijayanagara, had become complacent and over confident.
They had mistreated their Muslim neighbors, who finally joined a league against them.
Although outnumbering the Muslim armyto , the Vijayanagar empire fell in a short, intense battle. The Muslim calvary, and younger leaders, proved superior to the Vijayanagar foot soldier-based army with elderly generals. Overconfidence and arrogance may have been the reason for the down fall of the Vijayanagar empire and the sack of Vijayanagara.
The throne of the Vijayanagara Empire had passed from Achyuta Raya, upon his death, to Rama Raya who, according to many scholars, interfered in the affairs of the neighboring Muslim Sultanates.
That tactic, although working initially to his favor, backfired later. Finally, the Sultanates decided to unite together and destroy the Hindu kingdom. Other scholars disagree that Rama Raya interfered with Sultanate affairs but, rather, used the disunity of the Sultans to the advantage of Vijayanagara.
Later, inter-family abttle between Sultans solved many of their internal conflicts and they finally united against Vijayanagara empire, seen as the common Hindu enemy.
They met at Talikota situated on the alluvial banks of the Krishna River, in present day Karnataka state, between the two villages Rakkasa and Tangadi.
The battle represented one of the few times in medieval Indian history that factions employed a joint strategy. Some minor Hindu kingdoms who held grudges against the Vijayanagara Empire aided the sultanates.
The Deccan kings had a grand total of 80, infantry and 30, cavalry. Vijayanagara, on the other hand, hadfoot soldiers, with another 10, on horseback. The armies also had large numbers of war elephants.
Battle of Talikota
The decisive battle proved brief and bitter. Fighting in a rocky terrain, the invading troops launched a classic offensive strategy.
First, they softened up the primary lines of the Vijayanagara army using cannon fire. The concentrated artillery took its toll, and the massive frontal attack by the combined armies finished the job.
The battle ended in a complete victory for the sultanates, with the raja being beheaded and put on display as a trophy. Pillage and the plunder of Vijayanagara battle. The battle spelled the death bqttle for the large Hindu kingdoms in Indiaending the last great southern empire in India.
A victorious army, along with hordes of robbers and jungle dwellers, fell upon the great city, looting, robbing, murdering, and pillaging the residents. With axes, crowbars, fire, and sword, the victorious armies went about the task talikoota bringing to rubble the city of Vijayanagara, which never recovered from the onslaught. The highly diminished Vijayanagara empire staged an unsuccessful comeback with its capital at Penukonda. Tirumala failed to lay claim over Vijayanagara.
Battle of Talikota (1565 AD)
The younger brother of Aliya Rama Raya, ta,ikota called Tirumala became regent through local support. Six years passed before Tirumala could claim regency over the former capital of Vijayanagara. Anarchy spread taliklta that time. Aliya Rama Rayas’ practice of nominating family relatives to key positions of the former kingdom, instead of loyal officers, fueled family feuds and rebellion.
The Polygar Palyagar system local chieftainswhich had been so successful earlier, became the source of break away factions. The Nayaks of Tamil -speaking regions; Gingee, Madurai Nayaks, and Tanjore Nayaks exercised their independence, Tirumala Deva Raya having to tacitly accept the independence batttle those Nayakas to keep their friendship in an hour of impending invasions from Bijapur. Later, the Vijayanagara empire shifted capitals to Chandragiri, and eventually to Vellore.
It left a residue of Telugu enclaves and local elites scattered over most of South India. Kannada country lost its united identity for the coming four centuries, through the creation of smaller states such as the Kingdom of MysoreKeladi Talkiota, Nayakas of Chitradurga, the latter two eventually merging with the Kingdom of Mysore.
Some Kannada-speaking regions became baytle of Taliota Karnataka ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad and Bombay Presidency governed by Maratha chieftains all of whom came under the British umbrella. Historians have debated over the cause of the defeat of Vijayanagara with much enthusiasm.
From those sources, the following reasons have been forwarded:. First, while the Vijayanagara armies had relatively lesser number of cavalry on horseback and depended on commanders riding war elephants making them slower on battlefield, the Sultanate armies had many more swift Persian horses used by key sections of the army and commanders. That gave the them an edge. Second, all of the three main commanders of the Vijayanagara army, including Aliya Rama Raya, had been elderly, whereas the Sultanate armies had younger commanders.
Battle of Talikota | Indian history |
Third, while the Vijayanagara infantry depended on bows made of bamboothe Sultanate armies used crossbows made of metal, which proved more accurate, gave greater distance, and, ultimatley, more lethal. In addition, the Vijayanagara army felt overconfident, using seven foot long spears and javelins while the Sultanate armies used fifteen foot long spears while riding horse back, giving them a clear advantage.
Fourth, the Sultanate armies had a much better prepared artillery division manned by gunners from Turkestan, at that time considered the best at artillery warfare, while Vijayanagara depended on less well trained European mercenaries. Fifth, in spite of all those disadvantages, historians agree that the betrayal by two key Vijayanagara commanders, the Gilani brothers, who had thousands of soldiers under their command, stood as the biggest reason for the defeat. Those commanders had defected from the Adil Shahi kingdom and later had been employed by Aliya Rama Raya.
The Gilani brothers fled the battlefield at a key juncture.
Battle of Talikota ( AD)
That has been strongly supported by the writings of two European travelers, Frendricci and Frenchman Anquetil Du Perron, who visited Vijayanagar in C.
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Date January 26,