Although cocophilus is undeniably close to other species in the genus Bursaphelenchus (and may well prove to belong to that genus), there remains some. Bursaphelenchus cocophilus. Red Ring Nematode. Synonym: Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus. Rhadinaphelenchus was designated a junior. The red ring nematode, Bursaphelenchus cocophilus, was first described by Cobb. () as Aphelenchus cocophilus from specimens in.
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red ring nematode – Bursaphelenchus cocophilus Cobb
Bursaphelenchus cocophilus nematodes infect palm trees and cause the red ring disease that is fatal to palm, coconut and other fruit trees. Chlorosis leaf discoloration first appears at the tips of the oldest leaves and spreads towards their bases.
The brown lower leaves may break across the petiole of the lower part of the rachis, or they may become partly dislodged at the base and hang down. Nuts are shed prematurely, either simultaneously with the development of leaf symptoms, or slightly before.
About weeks after symptoms first appear the crown often topples over from the internal damage caused by the palm weevil larvae; but, the trunk remains standing in the field for several months until it decays. However, the outward yellow appearance of the nematode infection is sometimes indistinguishable from those of trees growing under conditions of poor drainage or during intense drought The name Red Ring Disease comes from the internal lesions these nematodes cause and they appear as an orange to brick-red colored ring, cm wide, and at a distance of cm from the periphery.
In longitudinal section, the reddened tissue may appear as two united bands joined in the bole forming a U-shape or full circle.
Texas Invasive Species Institute
To view an adult Bursaphelenchus cocophilus click here. Bursaphelenchus cocophilus causes serious damage to coconut palms in the Neotropic region and also in Brazil where it is vectored by the weevil Rhincophorus palmarum.
The nematode can be introduced with infected weevils or infected coconut palm material. There is a serious cocophious threat if the red ring disease comes to the United States; especially since it could then be vectored by native Rhincophorus cruentatus. If the nematode is able to utilize the native weevils it would expand the range of threat from just California and Texas, where the South American Palm Weevil is present, to all states where palm trees grow or are imported.
This nematode poses a great risk to the ornamental palm industry of the U.
Bursaphelenchus cocophilus pest information
For more information on the South American Palm Weevil click here. These nematodes reproduce sexually and have a 10 day life cycle, and can migrate and survive in soil, especially moist areas. This nematode can be transmitted by buraaphelenchus infected tissue in soil near healthy trees, but nematode survives free in soil only days.
Bursaphelenchus cocophilus adults are carried on body surface and also enter body through spiracles and mouth of the South American Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum. Transmission to leaf axils occurs as beetle feeds.
Nematodes also aggregate around ovipositor and are injected into soft tissue as beetle deposits eggs. Beetle larvae hatch and tunnel into tissues, pupate, emerge, become infected and spread nematodes. There is some evidence to suggest that nematodes may persist in beetle larvae through molts, but this is unclear. It was thought to be brought in on an imported palm tree or an ornamental plant. The vector is present in the United States but there is no presence of Bursaphelenchus cocophilus yet.
Also, Bursaphelenchus cocophilus adults survive best in wet, swampy areas, in clay rather than sandy soil. In the Caribbean, Traps or guard baskets are designed to protect plantations from frequent outbreaks of Bursaphelenchus cocophilus. They do so by attracting and killing palm weevils which may enter the plantations from nearby diseased trees.
Guard baskets are cylindrical, 1 m high and 0. There are no simple means of controlling this nematode and limited and expensive effective measures are available for control of it in living palms. Control is based on prevention rather than cure either by the bursaphelencgus of infested palm material by cutting and burning, or by the injection of nematocides and burning, or by trapping and killing of the weevil vectors before they spread the nematodes.
Association of the red ring nematode, Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilusand other nematode species with Rhynchophorus palmarum Coleoptera: The role of the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarumas a vector of red ring disease of coconuts.
Results of preliminary investigations. Journal of Economic entomology, 56 3: Texas Invasive Species Institute.
Description Bursaphelenchus cocophilus nematodes infect palm trees and cause the red ring disease that is fatal to palm, coconut and other fruit trees. To view an adult Bursaphelenchus cocophilus click here Ecological Threat Bursaphelenchus cocophilus causes serious damage to coconut palms in the Neotropic region and also in Brazil where it is vectored by the weevil Rhincophorus palmarum.
Biology These nematodes reproduce sexually and have a 10 day life cycle, and can migrate and survive in soil, especially moist areas.
Native Origin Native Origin: References Text References Esser, R. Red ring disease of coconut palm.