This study had the objective of describing a case of dextrocardia with situs solitus and apex-basis axis inversion in a lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla). Arq Bras Cardiol. Dec;91(6):e Anatomy of a dextrocardia case with situs solitus. Faig-Leite FS(1), Faig-Leite H. Author information: (1)Universidade. Herz. May;35(3) doi: /s Epub May Isolated dextrocardia with situs solitus (dextroversion). Solzbach U(1).
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Dextrocardia with situs solitus and inversion apex-basis axis in lesser anteater Tamandua tetradactyla – case report. Pinheiro I ; L.
Pereira II ; A. Lima I ; E. Dextrocardia is a rare cardiac anomaly where the heart is situated on the right antimeres of the thorax.
This dextrocardla had the objective of describing a case of dextrocardia with situs solitus and apex-basis axis inversion in a lesser anteater Tamandua tetradactyla between five evaluated animals, all from the area of Mine Bauxite – Paragominas – Para.
The heart of an animal was found in right antimere with inversion of the base-apex axis.
The right atrium was more developed then the left and the pulmonary veins arrived directly in the left ventricle. The main vases of the base were identified with some topographic alterations resulting in: Internally there were four cardiac chambers, with absence of septal communication.
The ssitus anteater Tamandua tetradactila is a Xenartra from the Myrmecophagidae family. Geographically, this species is distributed to the east of the Andes, in Venezuela, until the north of Argentina. In Brazil it spreads out in the Amazon, Atlantic forest, southern fields and pantanal.
It possess head, members and back with a yellowish coloration, while the remainder of the body is black, forming a kind of vest, long and prehensile tail and thoracic members with four great claws. Its habits are predominantly nocturnal and dextricardia feeding basis for these animals is insects, mainly ants and termites Reis et al.
The dextrocardia is a cardiac anomaly characterized by the displacement of the biggest axis base-apex of the heart to the right side of the thorax with a reversion of the apical inclination, this occurs due to an anomalous rotation of the primitive tube of the heart to the right, being a rare anomaly in human beings, and not described in animals.
This infirmity can occur separately situs solitus or in association with situs inversus complete inversion of all visceral organs presenting itself as an inverted image Da Silva et al.
The incidence of dextrocardia associated with situs inversus in the general population is 1: A similar situation described in the literature and involving animals was only described by Castro et al. After that the animals had been radiographed and dissected, the aortic arch was removed after the sternum.
In the dextrocardic animal situs solitus with base-apex axis inversion the heart was removed by incision of the vessels of the dexrocardia. It was observed among between the animals studied Figure 1 A and B a female with dextrocardia with situs solitusshown only an inverted heart, while the and other organs had normal topography.
Anatomy of a dextrocardia case with situs solitus.
The four cardiac chambers were located, however, and the difference in size between the right and left atrium, in which the right was distended while the left was hypotrophic Figure 2 A-C called our attention. The heart from the dextrocardic animal was located in the mediastinum between the 3rd and 4th intercostal spaces, whereas in other animals the heart was located between the 3rd and 6th intercostal spaces showing that the dextrocardic animal had a smaller heart Figure 1 B and D.
Differing from the normal animals, the vessels on the base of the heart of sutus animal with dextrocardia situs solitus and apex-basis inversion axis presented alterations. The aorta was dorsally located to the cava caudal vein, the pulmonary artery was cranial and dorsal to the aorta, the pulmonary veins in number ofthree were ventral to the pulmonary artery, the cava caudal vein placed in the ventral plane and the cava cranial vein in the dorsal plane, both in relation to the other vessels Figure 1 C and xextrocardia A and B.
The exception was for the pulmonary veins that penetrated directly in the left ventricle, not passing for the atrium. These findings had not resulted in difference about the place of entrance and exit of the other cardiac vessels from basis Figure 2C.
Internally, the heart from the dextrocardic animal did not show any significant alteration, and it was possible to observe four chambers without septal communication. The wall of the left ventricle LV was thicker than the right ventricle RV similar to this organ’s normal anatomy Figure 1 C.
Cwhen described together with the transposition of other organs in two animals situs inversus totalis. Only in XV century did the dextrocardia reports become more frequent, however only in human beings, a fact that restricted animal investigations.
In humans, dextrocardia cases with situs inversus totalisalso seen with situs inversus Perloff,in the heart and in other organs, are presented as a mirror image of the normal disposition.
Isolated dextrocardia with situs solitus (dextroversion).
The cava veins, superior and inferior, are on the right atrium that is located to the left of the vertebral column, while the aorta is below on the right. The aortic arch places it on the right and dextrocaardia ascending aorta leaves the left ventricle in the caudo-cranial direction, from the right to the left da Silva et al. Such alterations had not been found in this animal because the heart presented an apex-based rotation axis.
However, the pulmonary veins did not enter the left atrium, these entered in left ventricle, leading us to believe that during the bombardment, after the blood passes to the lungs for gaseous exchange, the arterial blood arrived directly the left ventricle, not passing in the atrium and bicuspid valve.
This condition was not found in dextrocareia studied animal because there is no communication between the pulmonary artery and the aorta. In general, authors classify these alterations as a direct consequence of dextrocardia associated to multiple cardiac malformations Bernasconi et al. This affirmation is refuted by Aiello et al. Our findings corroborate the named author, however, we did not find multiple malformations, only the shunting of pulmonary veins to the left ventricle as mentioned before.
Although there is literature that consecrates that in the dextrocardia there is a displacement of the main axis of the heart basis-apex to the right antimere Bernasconi et al. The dextrocardia with situs solitus in itself is not a common pathology in animals. The fact of the base-apex inverted axis makes this finding more uncommon.
A population-based study of cardiac malformations and outcomes associated with dextrocardia. Dextrocardia in situs inversus totalis with obstructive coronary disease. Its treatment by coronary angioplasty by the brachial approach. Practical Clinical Points and Comments on Terminology.
Relato de caso-Anatomia de um caso de Dextrocardia com Situs Solitus. A case of dextrocardia with normal situs. Recebido em 31 de julho de Aceito em 7 de maio de Ddxtrocardia the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Journal. How to cite this article.