Jerome H. Barkow of Dalhousie University, Halifax (Dal). Read 88 publications, 1 answers, and contact Jerome H. Barkow on ResearchGate, the professional. Jerome H. Barkow is a professor emeritus of anthropology at Dalhousie University. His anthropological work has frequently been conducted from the perspective. Jerome H. Barkow, author of The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture, Includes the names: Jerome H. Barkow.
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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Add Social Profiles Facebook, Twitter, etc. He is currently an emeritus professor of social anthropology at Dalhousie University, Canada where he has spent most of his career and a Trustee of Messaging Extraterrestrial Intelligence International.
The term “ethics” refers to rules for human conduct A. Rules for this Paper 1.
Jerome H. Barkow | LibraryThing
This paper will not “discover” moral guidance in any natural phenomena. A concern with ethics is one of the cross-cultural universals. The distinction between ethics and other norms is most parsimoniously treated as a folk distinction, a particular culture’s way of defining a semantic domain that may have other boundaries elsewhere.
Explanations of the foundations of ethics must be “vertically integrated. What is required is always a range of overlapping explanations, at several levels of analysis, which are all mutually compatible. Kinds of Mechanisms, Kinds of Norms B.
Waddington and the Acceptance of Authority 1. Cultural capacity itself depends upon our being an “authority acceptor. Human beings evolved as “ethical animals,” and there is an evolved “authority acceptor” mechanism in the brain, a mechanism whose ontogenesis is to be equated with Piaget’s accounts of cognitive development in the infant and child.
Freud and Solzhenitsyn 1. Freud saw morality as internalized by the resolution of the Oedipus Complex. Along with introjected father come the general badkow and principles of society as a whole, giving the boy his culture’s conscience. The experience of Nazi concentrations camps and the Soviet gulag shows that when one is reduced to infantile dependency upon one’s all-powerful captors or guards, one involuntarily again becomes the helpless young child introjecting the all-powerful father and the rules he represents.
Obligatory versus facultative norms 1. Obligatory norms are those whose violation automatically entails revulsion and even nausea and vomiting. It is not clear whether obligatory norms exist outside merome domain of food prohibitions. Facultative norms are those which an individual may or may not obey. A common tactic in impression management is to claim that one experiences a facultative norm as an obligatory norm. Ethics, Norms, and Society A. Of all the various sociological-level treatments of norms and ethics, this paper will limit itself to a discussion of 1 honor, and barkoww the origins of systems of ethics.
Social Identity, Facultative Norms, and Honor 1. Both individuals and groups use verbal and behavioral adherence to ethics and other norms in order to convey social jeroem. How do we move from evolved mechanisms at the individual level to the generation of widely shared systems of ethics?
Social relationships involve negotiation, as when patient and physician negotiate a diagnosis.
Introduction: Evolutionary psychology and conceptual integration
Even today, a group of people about to engage in a shared task will automatically establish an informal consensus about the division of labor and responsibility. How did our ancestors move from miniature normative systems about such matters as the organization and coordination of a work-bee or a hunting party to codified systems of ethics such as that of the Code of Hammurabi?
There is some evidence that, as human beings age, we grow increasing concerned with ingroup cooperation and conflict resolution. Is it not tempting to suggest that both our languages and a substantial portion of our genes are owed to those hypothetical small groups who were among the first to develop norms — ethics — of ingroup cooperation, and who by the resulting competitive advantage ultimately became our genetic and linguistic barow
This paper comes to questions rather than conclusions. Is the term “ethics” really just a culture-bound folk category of norms, or does badkow have a more universal meaning? How many types of ethics and norms are there, and what evolved mechanisms underlie them? Do norms and ethics undergo a cognitive developmental process, as Kohlberg argued for morality? What do individuals use norms and ethics for, at the individual level? Is it all impression jreome How do we move from that individual level to society-wide systems of norms and ethics?
What are the origins of our ethical systems, and what is their relationship to the findings of Cavalli-Sforza? Conformity to ethos and reproductive success in two Hausa communities: An empirical evaluation more.
Prestige and the ongoing process of culture revision. Human prestige systems are symbolic in nature and thus culturally patterned, though agonism lurks beneath all such systems. In both humans and chimpanzees, they may serve to permit learning from the high-ranked and the successful In both humans and chimpanzees, abrkow may serve to permit learning from the high-ranked and the successful.
However, reliance on socially transmitted cultural information would be maladaptive without evolved mechanisms to screen out harmful information and retain the useful.
One jerime these filters is preferential attention to the prestigious because prestige can be earned by skill and success. Prestige and dominance, like their underlying sentiments of respect and fear, are intertwined components of often complex and mutable social relationships; these components can be separated experimentally and mathematically but co-occur and evolved together. The evolution jrome our symbolic culturally determined prestige systems most likely involved sexual selection breaking down our ancestral social hierarchies into what we have today: Symbolic prestige allocation systems would have favored the evolution of cooperation over overt rivalry because they permit cryptic disagreement about relative standing, muting overt conflict and thus, perhaps, permitting the rise of complex, socially stratified societies.
The corollary of jedome preferential jrrome to the high in status is ignoring the low: Apparent lack of compassion bxrkow the poor or disabled may often simply be inattention. Mass media challenge the filtering role of baekow attention to the high-in-status because they devalue the coin of local prestige. Today, we risk learning irrelevancies from apparently prestigious strangers at the expense of relevant knowledge learned from locally successful individuals.
The Experimental Study of Cultural Transmission: Social PsychologyBehaviorCultureand Learning. Visual Media Influence on Behavior more. Are the new mass media subverting cultural transmission?
Prestige and the ongoing process of cultural revision Prestige barkod the ongoing process of culture revision 1, 2 more.
Culture does not so much get ” transmitted ” as edited, revised, inferred and filtered. It is unclear to what extent we were selected to have knowledge-domain-specific mechanisms for cultural learning; an alternative hypothesis is that we rely on preferential attention and learning from the high-in-status across diverse knowledge domains, but that evolution has produced ” switches ” that influence, on the basis of our age, sex, and current status position, which individuals we find prestigious.
Today, we risk arkow. Cultural EvolutionPrestigeand Culture Editing. Do extraterrestrials have sex and intelligence? This thought experiment addresses the range of possible evolved psychologies likely to be associated with extraterrestrial ET intelligence.
The analysis rests on: Depending on the amplification process, ETs may be xenophobic; however, it is more probable that they will be ethnocentric.
Their ideas of reciprocity barjow fairness are likely to at least overlap with our herome. They will definitely be culture-bearing and probably have two sexes both of which are intelligent. Regardless of the degree of physical similarity of ETs to ourselves, convergence makes it likely that we will at least find their evolved psychology similar enough to our own for comprehension. The denial of colostrum more. BreastfeedingBreastfeeding, lactation, and reproductive healthand Colostrum.
Indigenous knowledge is a loose term for the locally-based technical knowledge of pre-industrial communities. Much indigenous knowledge is of immense value, particularly in fields such as agriculture, ecological management, Much indigenous knowledge is of immense value, particularly in barmow such as agriculture, ecological management, herbal medicine and fisheries, but in some domains, particularly that of child nutrition, it may be less effective.
Indigenous knowledge of cuisine, however, was highly elaborated, producing sumptuous dishes pleasing to many palates. For the evolutionist, this situation is at first glance unexpected, given the apparently close connection between infant nutrition and reproductive success. This ironic situation can be resolved if we view human intelligence as having evolved to solve problems of social living and competition, problems involving a relatively short timeframe.
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Bugis cuisine, like many other cuisines, was developed in the context of social competition and short timeframe corrective information. Child nutrition, though possibly having competitive elements, may have a timeframe too long for our evolved error-correction mechanisms to be very effective. Child nutrition and Culture and Biological Evolution.
Altruism has to do with ethics, religion, and philosophy. But, according to a number of contemporary biologists, altruism is mostly about biology.
They argue that humans aid kin nepotistic altruism because it increases their own They argue that humans aid kin nepotistic altruism because it increases their own inclusive fitness—i. The Collapse of a Nigerian Gerontocracy. International Political Science Review.
Int Polit Sci Rev. An Ethnographic Comparison more.
Canadian Journal of African Studies. Hausa Women and Islam more. To conclude, the major effect of Islamization To conclude, the major effect of Islamization on Hausa women appears to Canadian Journal of African Studies Organization: Canadian Journal of African Studies, Vol. William O’Barr, David H.