Lorentzian wormholes: From Einstein to Hawking. Matt Visser (Washington U., St. Louis). ISBN: , Lorentzian wormholes: from Einstein to Hawking. Front Cover. Matt Visser. AIP Press, American Institute of Physics, – Science – pages. @ 23 January ; LATEX-ed Keywords: traversable wormholes, Lorentzian wormholes. Physical Review D
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For example, instead of circular holes on a 2D planethe entry and exit points could be visualized as spheres in 3D space.
An alternative to cosmic inflation”. Retrieved December 2, The drainhole is a solution manifold of Einstein’s field equations for a vacuum space-time, modified by inclusion of a scalar field minimally coupled to the Ricci tensor with antiorthodox polarity negative instead of positive.
More technically, the wormhole spacetime requires loreentzian distribution of energy that violates various energy conditionssuch as the null energy condition along with the weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions. Retrieved 20 February While traveling through a wormhole, subluminal slower-than-light speeds are used.
Principle of relativity Theory of relativity Frame of reference Inertial frame of reference Rest frame Center-of-momentum frame Equivalence principle Mass—energy equivalence Special relativity Doubly special relativity de Sitter invariant special relativity World line Riemannian geometry.
Energy conditions in the Boulware vacuum”.
However, in the pure Gauss—Bonnet gravity a modification to general relativity involving extra spatial dimensions which is sometimes studied in the context of brane cosmology exotic matter is not needed in order for wormholes to exist—they can exist even with no matter. Gravitational singularity Penrose—Hawking wor,holes theorems Primordial black hole Gravastar Dark star Dark-energy star Black star Eternally collapsing object Magnetospheric eternally collapsing object Fuzzball White hole Naked singularity Ring singularity Immirzi parameter Membrane paradigm Kugelblitz Wormhole Quasi-star.
InMorris, Thorne and Yurtsever worked out how to convert a wormhole lorentzuan space into one traversing time by accelerating one of its two mouths.
Matt Visser: Book
A follow-up paper to Misner and Wheeler December Other non-traversable wormholes include Lorentzian wormholes first proposed by John Archibald Wheeler inwormholes creating a spacetime foam in a general relativistic spacetime manifold depicted by a Lorentzian manifold and Euclidean wormholes named after Euclidean manifolda structure of Riemannian manifold. The original Einstein—Rosen bridge was described in an article published in July According to the optical Raychaudhuri’s theoremthis requires a violation of the averaged null energy condition.
This suggests that a wormhole time machine with an exceedingly short time jump is a theoretical bridge between contemporaneous parallel universes. This means that the interior black hole region can contain a mix of particles that fell in from either universe and thus an observer who fell in from one universe might be able to see light that fell in from the other oneand likewise particles from the interior white hole region can escape into either universe. Chronology protection conjecture Closed timelike curve Novikov self-consistency principle Self-fulfilling prophecy Quantum mechanics of time travel.
The Physics of Stargates.
The Birth of Wormholes”. A possible resolution to the paradoxes resulting from wormhole-enabled time travel rests on the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. University of Chicago Press. And just as there are two separate interior regions of the maximally extended spacetime, there are also two separate exterior regions, sometimes called two different “universes”, with the second universe allowing us to extrapolate some possible particle trajectories in the two interior regions.
A wormhole or Einstein—Rosen bridge is a speculative structure linking disparate points in spacetimeand is based on a special solution of the Einstein field equations solved using a Jacobian matrix and determinant.
Matt Visser: Book
Fuller published a paper  showing that this type of wormhole is unstable if it connects two parts of the same universe, and that it will pinch off too quickly for light or any particle moving slower than light that falls in from one exterior region to make it to the other exterior region.
One significant limitation of such a time machine is that it is only possible to go as far back in time as the initial creation of the machine; : We call such a connection between the two sheets a “bridge”. Thermodynamics Schwarzschild radius M—sigma relation Event horizon Quasi-periodic oscillation Photon sphere Innermost stable circular orbit Ergosphere Hawking radiation Penrose process Blandford—Znajek process Bondi accretion Spaghettification Gravitational lens.
Timelines in fiction in science fiction in games television series that include time travel. An excellent and more concise review. What is left is the Ellis wormholea nongravitating, purely geometric, traversable wormhole.
One end of the wormhole is accelerated to some significant fraction of the speed of light, perhaps with some advanced propulsion systemand then brought back to the point of origin.
Kaluza—Klein theory Quantum gravity Supergravity. For this reason, the type of traversable wormhole they proposed, held open by a spherical shell of exotic matterwas from to referred to in the literature as a Morris—Thorne wormhole.
Lordntzian of Geometry and Physics.
Lorentzian wormholes: From Einstein to Hawking – INSPIRE-HEP
Quantum effects such as the Casimir effect cannot violate the averaged null energy condition in any neighborhood of space with zero curvature,  but calculations in semiclassical gravity suggest that quantum effects may be able to violate this condition in curved spacetime.
Later, other types of traversable wormholes were discovered as allowable solutions to the equations of general relativity, including a variety analyzed in a paper by Matt Visserin which a path through the wormhole can be made where the traversing path does not pass through a region of exotic matter.
wormhiles Formalizing this idea leads to definitions lorentzjan as the following, taken from Matt Visser ‘s Lorentzian Wormholes In this spacetime, it is possible to come up with coordinate systems such that if a hypersurface of constant time a set of points that all have the same time coordinate, such that every point on the surface has a space-like separation, giving what is called a ‘space-like surface’ is picked and an “embedding diagram” drawn depicting the curvature of space at that time, the embedding diagram will look like a tube connecting the two exterior regions, known as an “Einstein—Rosen bridge”.
International Journal of Modern Physics D. Because a wormhole time-machine introduces a type of nonlinearity into quantum theory, this sort of communication between parallel universes is consistent with Joseph Polchinski ‘s proposal of an Everett phone  named after Hugh Everett in Steven Weinberg ‘s formulation of nonlinear quantum mechanics.
The Einstein—Rosen bridge was discovered by Ludwig Flamm in visesr,  a few months after Schwarzschild published his solution, visset was rediscovered by Albert Einstein and his colleague Nathan Rosen, who wofmholes their result in Wormholes have been defined both geometrically and topologically. The impossibility of faster-than-light relative speed only applies locally.
Grandfather paradox Causal loop. Kip Thorne and his graduate student Mike Morrisunaware of the papers by Ellis and Bronnikov, manufactured, and in published, a duplicate of the Ellis wormhole for use as a tool for wormhholes general relativity. Time Travel and Warp Drives. To see why exotic matter is required, consider an incoming light front traveling along geodesics, which then crosses the wormhole and re-expands on the other side.