Keywords: Niklas Luhmann – systems theory – language conception – communication – Resumo: O presente artigo investiga a função e realidade da linguagem na teoria dos sistemas de Niklas Luhmann. Como se pode Introduction. Niklas Luhmann e a Teoria dos Sistemas Sociais .. Both in “Introducción a la Teoria de Sistemas” (Introduction to the Theory of Systems), published in TÍTULO: Niklas Luhmann, la teoría de los sistemas sociales y la visión del Dr. Raf American universities have played an important role in the introduction of.

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Universidad de Guadalajara, What intersects the troria is the fact that there are systems that, when they interact with the environment, they build internal forms for their maintenance, looking for a balance with the environment, not in the sense of thermal death, but promoting dynamic adaptive transformations.

Theory of Society, Vol.

O Manifesto da Transdisciplinaridade. Luhmann likens the operation of autopoiesis the filtering and processing of information from the environment to a programmaking a series of logical distinctions in German, Unterscheidungen.

Finally, the systems’ autopoietic closure is another fundamental difference from Parsons’ concept.

The temporality of the processes is reintroduced; it emerges in the process of constructing knowledge, Prigogine’s arrow of time. Social theory Systems theory Communication theory Sociocybernetics.

Systems Theory. Niklas Luhmann. Law as a Social System Research Papers –

Luhmann himself described his theory as “labyrinth-like” or sistemax and claimed he was deliberately keeping his prose enigmatic to prevent it from being understood “too quickly”, which would only produce simplistic misunderstandings. In the course of developing this theory he has, however, reformulated or changed the status of a number of central system theoretical concepts, Stanford University Press, However, the social theory faced, according to Luhmann, two problems: The scientometric studies 23 made an effort at quantifying this increasing complexity presenting tendencies of scientific production.


Thus, science, studied under this theoretical siste,as, presents properties different from those of politics, religion, education, and so on. Thus, Descartessearching for a universal mathematic to combine distinct fields of knowledge, defended the progression of superior terms sistems information from the previous ones, as if everything could be originated from the first causes: Even the human sciences would pay tribute to such enterprises that reshaped the world view of that time 2.

At the same time his theory is being applied or used worldwide by sociologists and other scholars. His relatively low profile elsewhere is partly due to the fact that translating his work is a difficult task, since his writing presents a challenge even to readers of German, including many sociologists.

The problem is the systems’ operation: It is necessary to ask for the distinction that composes it: For example, Thomas Hobbes applied the Newtonian and the Cartesian geometric principle to the moral sciences, that is, to the humanities. Luhmann defines complexity as the moment when it is not possible anymore for each element to relate at any moment with all the others.

The system has to close itself operationally in relation to the environment for it to happen, producing its own elements, autopoiesis operating, thus, the building of its own complexity.

While his theories have yet to make a major mark in American sociology, his theory is currently well known and popular in German sociology, [6] and has also been rather intensively received in Japan and Eastern Europe, including Russia. In this sense, he does not start from the idea of unit, but from that of difference.


With his Theory of Social Systems, he proposes the reduction of the world’s complexity. Niklas Luhmann is considered one of the most important German theorists of our times. During a sabbatical inhe went to Harvardwhere he met and studied under Talcott Parsonsthen the world’s most influential social systems theorist. Memory, that is, culture, is not anymore a kind of archive collecting and storing A unit is excessively complex, since it possess more elements and connects them it joins them for more relations.

Niklas Luhmann

Thus, the form of the complexity is the limit to order, where it is possible yet for each element to relate at any time with other elements. According to Ashby op. In this sense, there seems to be a similar purpose between Bacon, Hobbes and Durkheim in relation to the difference between order and disorder, favoring the first side of the form and the idea of harmony.

Thus, between the ultimate complexity of the world and the human conscience there is a gap. Thus, in line with the solipsism of which he is commonly accused, Luhmann devises what he has called the realistic cognitive theory Luhmann, b: This way, hipercomplex systems can be attained; these contain a plurality of distinctions of complexities, resulting from the fact that an observer can describe another observer’s description of complexity, in other words, second order observations.